At issue was the controversial recount in Florida in the aftermath of the presidential election. But the most famous cases have dealt with affirmative action as practiced by public universities: Breyer, and Justice Elena Kagan ruled in favor. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. Because one partner, John Arthur, was terminally ill and suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , they wanted the Ohio Registrar to identify the other partner, James Obergefell, as his surviving spouse on his death certificate based on their July 11, , Maryland marriage. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
On the face, there was no clear evidence of racially discriminatory intent on the part of Arlington Heights's planning commission. Evans struck down a Colorado constitutional amendment aimed at denying homosexuals "minority status, quota preferences, protected status or [a] claim of discrimination. McConnell has written that Congress never "required that the schools of the District of Columbia be segregated. A difference between the initial and final versions of the clause was that the final version spoke not just of "equal protection" but of "the equal protection of the laws". It protects the black man in his fundamental rights as a citizen with the same shield which it throws over the white man. The Court again through Chief Justice Vinson, and again with no dissenters invalidated the school system—not because it separated students, but rather because the separate facilities were not equal. The Supreme Court has been disinclined to extend full " suspect classification " status thus making a law that categorizes on that basis subject to greater judicial scrutiny for groups other than racial minorities and religious groups. The same right to make a contract as is enjoyed by white citizens, means the right to make any contract which a white citizen may make. Under this theory, equal protection jurisprudence has been applied to voting rights. However, the Supreme Court has instead responded that voting is a "fundamental right" on the same plane as marriage Loving v. A recent use of equal protection doctrine came in Bush v. Justice John Marshall Harlan dissented alone, saying, "I cannot resist the conclusion that the substance and spirit of the recent amendments of the Constitution have been sacrificed by a subtle and ingenious verbal criticism. Vinson , said that Oklahoma had deprived McLaurin of the equal protection of the laws: Bancroft, acting as court reporter , indicated in the headnotes that corporations were "persons", while the actual court decision itself avoided specific statements regarding the Equal Protection Clause as applied to corporations. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. The Court that decided Brown Partly because of that enigmatic phrase, but mostly because of self-declared " massive resistance " in the South to the desegregation decision, integration did not begin in any significant way until the mids and then only to a small degree. Warren, however, through persuasion and good-natured cajoling—he had been an extremely successful Republican politician before joining the Court—was able to convince all eight associate justices to join his opinion declaring school segregation unconstitutional. Because one partner, John Arthur, was terminally ill and suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , they wanted the Ohio Registrar to identify the other partner, James Obergefell, as his surviving spouse on his death certificate based on their July 11, , Maryland marriage. Justice O'Connor added a sixth vote to overturn the conviction, but rested her decision solely on the Equal Protection Clause. Rodriguez that the Equal Protection Clause allows—but does not require—a state to provide equal educational funding to all students within the state. These laws severely restricted the rights of blacks to hold property , including real property such as real estate and many forms of personal property , and to form legally enforceable contracts. Brown , ruled that the Equal Protection Clause had been intended to defend equality in civil rights , not equality in social arrangements. Bollinger and Gratz v. No state statute was in question, and therefore the Equal Protection Clause did not apply. Reed , extending the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to protect women from sex discrimination, in situations where there is no rational basis for the discrimination.
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